In relativism, ethical behavior and moral viewpoints are justified by or are relative to any one of many viewpoints or standards; what is considered moral behavior and ethical knowledge is determined by the framework that is used when making a judgment, and no standard or viewpoint is privileged over any other. such ordinary decisions should come to mind. Character, however, determines how we perceive or frame situations, so a focus on the virtues of the nurse is critically important. Although commonly used approaches such as “Which person would you throw from the sinking boat?” may suffice, we believe that more benefit is gained if the situations relate to actual or potential nursing practice. knowledge is revisited and challenged as the need arises by asking the critical questions: “Is this knowledge right?” “Is it responsible?” With these questions, nurses consider whether disciplinary forms of ethical knowledge guide right and responsible ethical decisions. Some decision trees prescribe, at least in part, the ethical framework to be used, whereas others expect the user to designate or choose the framework that is relevant to the situation. Definition: Ethical issues in business is a situation where a moral conflict arises and must be addressed. The opening quote suggests that, although certain ethical and moral directives seem universal, when they are used in clinical settings, the ways in which to apply them are not always clear. Participating in ethics-related discussions, utilizing available ethics resources (Milliken, 2017b), and becoming familiar with the ANA Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements (Code of Ethics) are several ways of developing ethical competence. What it is important to understand is that you, as a nurse, may act morally in relation to strong ethical precepts and end up in a court of law because your actions were illegal. In addition, an envisioned future may form a critical template against which to reflect ethical knowledge. Are historical claims restricted by the language they use?Is all history biased?How important is the role of statistics in history?Does history show we have made ethical progress?To what extent does emotion play a role in historical interpretation?Is historical objectively possible?To what extent does historical knowledge change over time?How is knowledge about the past different from other kinds of knowledge?How does the langu… In this article, we will outline the similarities and differences of the CPA vs CFA designations and try to steer you in the right direction about) adhere to their own codes of conduct and ethical standards. Here are some real professional code of ethics examples: Principles of Professional Ethics for the Intelligence Community (Office of the Director of National Intelligence) NASP Principles for Professional Ethics (National Association of School Psychologists) There are various techniques for values clarification (Bandman & Bandman, 2001; Catalano, 2008; Simon, Howe, & Kirschenbaum, 1995). However, the mother attributes them to the caregiver, who, you subsequently learn, is the child’s grandmother. Throughout the TOK course, you will explore knowledge questions on four elements: scope, ethics, perspectives and ethics & tools. Character, however, determines how we perceive or frame situations, so a focus on the virtues of the nurse is critically important. Case studies of ethical problems can be organized into decision trees rather than being discussed directly. Clearly nursing is a profession that requires ethical knowledge to guide practice. A number of sources suggest the use of decision trees as an approach to ethical decision making (Burkhardt & Nathaniel, 2007; Ellis & Hartley, 2004; Frame & Williams, 2005). . An approach that emphasizes detachment and objectivity in ethical decision making has been linked to traditional medical ethics approaches and critiqued as inappropriate for nursing. An ethical decision that is arrived at logically is then tested in some manner (e.g., by looking at its consistency with a principle or code for ethical behavior). Both deontologic and teleologic systems focus on the individual as a decision maker who is autonomous in action. As you explore all of the alternative actions that arise from the various values of those involved and the dilemmas that arise from competing ethical values, you gain insight and understanding of the situation and ultimately gain clarity about those actions that are right, good, just, and responsible. What would be gained? Throughout the history of humanity, people have faced such dilemmas, and philosophers aimed and worked to find solutions to them. If ethics is head work, you might think of morality as heart work that is expressed by doing. Someone following a utilitarian approach to ethics would likely choose to eliminate the person who is stuck, as this philosophy is based on choosing actions that result in the greatest good for the greatest number of … If the client’s welfare is the concern for both parties, then the nurse and the physician should be successful in engaging in dialogue that questions how right and responsible any decision is. If factual evidence for one point of view is provided, that evidence is examined for accuracy. The choice is between actively causing one person’s death or allowing people (including oneself) to die. These examples of ethical behaviors ensures maximum productivity output at work. Consider the example of the United States Patients’ Bill of Rights in Medicare and Medicaid that was finalized in 1999 (“The Patients’ Bill of Rights in Medicare and Medicaid,” 1999). Walker (1993) suggested that nurses’ moral expertise is not a question of mastering codes and laws but rather a matter of being architects of moral space within the health care setting and mediators in the conversations that are taking place. Within our model, then, exploring and clarifying processes occur when questions are raised about what is right and what is responsible behavior. In this instance, the understanding that would arise from your conversation with the physician provides you with a perspective about the right thing to do that you can draw on in the future. The term comportment basically refers to how people behave and, in this case, how they behave in relation to what they do morally and what they know ethically. The OED definition is… ethics. Refute the paradox (dilemma): The situation must be carefully analyzed. Morality and ethics interrelate in that ethical knowledge can provide a basis or template for judging and evaluating moral standards and behavior. Therefore, the ability to find the optimal solution in such situations is critical to everyone. Doing so requires radical responses and moral courage as well as political astuteness. Others may not have even thought about certain details as being relevant, whereas still others in the group may offer reasons for omissions as well as for inclusions. Emancipatory knowing suggests focusing on how and why particular virtues of nurses (e.g., caring, being on the job for patients despite heavy patient loads) may operate to maintain a problematic status quo (i.e., inadequate staffing that maximizes profits for hospital corporations rather than for caring nurses). How is morality determined? Fundamentally, these processes involve the use of rational thought and emotional awareness to understand and examine the values that guide your actions. Ethical decisions that are made around a conference table by an ethics committee, although important, are not our major focus or the major domain of nursing’s morality and ethics. However, because time constraints caused by a heavy patient load prohibit you from doing this in ways that really matter to you, you experience moral distress. Through the collective disciplinary processes of dialogue and justification, ethical knowledge is authenticated and understood in relation to practice. Virtue ethics allows for flexibility when approaching moral/ethical situations that deontologic and teleologic systems alone do not offer. Reverby’s (1987) historical work underscores the nature of the nurse’s duty to care while being denied the means to effect or create an environment in which caring is valued and possible. Individuals or groups who engage in values-clarification processes need an environment that allows for the freedom of value choices and for the affirmation of the values clarified. Despite the fact that the terms ‘cognitivism’ and ‘objectivism’ seem sometimes to be used interchangeably, I take it that the question whether there can be ethical knowledge is not the same as the question whether ethical outlooks can be objective. Ethical concerns abound in the race to develop a COVID-19 vaccine. Because the resident who is demented was identified by name in the conversation, this activity clearly constitutes a breach of confidentiality as guaranteed in the Patients’ Bill of Rights. Under the extreme relativist view, incorporating any idea of moral and ethical comportment into a knowledge development model becomes something of a nonissue; this is because moral and ethical comportment would be relative to every possible ethical situation, and thus standards for behavior could not be generalized to all nurses. The following approaches to solve an ethical dilemma were deduced: Some examples of ethical dilemma examples include: Ethical dilemmas are especially significant in professional life, as they frequently occur in the workplace. Because our model combines aspects of each of these positions, these are central questions that require thoughtful consideration. According to our model, nurses who make use of ethical knowledge that has been strengthened through the authentication processes of dialogue and justification can be expected to increasingly practice with moral/ethical comportment. For example, unsafe working conditions are generally considered unethical because they put workers in danger. These authors point out the political reality of caring and urge caution lest we embrace a feminine—rather than a feminist—ethic (Liaschenko, 1993; Tong, 2008). When placing details of an ethical situation within a decision tree, it is important to notice which details require deliberation before making a choice and which can go unquestioned. Ethical knowing in nursing is reflected in the decision to ignore a comment or to attend to it, in considering what to say and what not to say during everyday conversations, or in deciding whether to keep information to ourselves or reveal it. (Manley Hall) "The first step in the evolution of ethics is a sense of solidarity with other human beings." Dissertations may even be doomed to failure if this part is missing. Not only do these imply a separate-from or autonomous stance toward ethical challenges, but they also may be inappropriate for nursing, in which gendered traits are typically female (Condon, 1992). An extreme view of deontology is exemplified by someone who, because he or she is required by rule or precept to tell the truth, does the morally right thing and tells the truth, thereby causing great emotional distress to a client and that client’s family (i.e., a bad outcome). Thus, what constitutes moral behavior varies, and what is important in one society (e.g., being on time out of respect for others) may be unimportant in another. The situation may be common in companies that value results the most. The physician states that, in the past, she had given the same information to the patient, who had not acted on the information and subsequently became extremely anxious about making treatment choices. Both deontologic and teleologic systems focus on the individual as a decision maker who is autonomous in action. There are eight directives, which are summarized as follows: Being a full partner in health care decisions, Taking on new responsibilities for maintaining good health. In this instance, the social worker had the good intentions of helping the attendant to better care for the resident. When examining the nature of ethical knowing and knowledge, the following questions naturally arise: Toward what end should ethical knowledge be developed? Regardless of the techniques used, values clarification is an individual process that seeks to unveil deeply held values that are often taken for granted. In relation to ethical systems of reasoning, relativists would argue that universal generalities about what constitutes moral action cannot be made. Similar processes can be used for exploring alternatives with the use of completed decision trees. An intern on the team shares that the grandmother had voluntarily offered in a conversation with her that, on occasion, the child had slipped from her arms to the floor, and the grandmother was worried that this may have caused the child’s appendicitis. Does ethical knowledge differ from other kinds of knowledge? Whistleblowers almost always become, Certified Banking & Credit Analyst (CBCA)™, Capital Markets & Securities Analyst (CMSA)™, Financial Modeling & Valuation Analyst (FMVA)™, Financial Modeling and Valuation Analyst (FMVA)®, Financial Modeling & Valuation Analyst (FMVA)®, Offering a client a worse product for your own profit, Utilizing inside knowledge for your own profit. Collating and reporting their answers would be in the realm of descriptive ethics. According to Thompson (2007), bioethics may be only marginally meaningful to most nurses; the language of bioethics deflects attention from the political organizations of care and the challenges of day-to-day nursing care. Dialogue requires a community of those who are challenged by an ethical problem. When performing values clarification, there may be a tendency to avoid what is difficult. They come together as a community, either face to face, online, or via exchanges published in the professional literature to examine established ethical perspectives, principles, and codes (Btoush & Campbell, 2009; Freysteinson, 2009; Quaghebeur & Gastmans, 2009). 130… Moreover, you and others can revisit and revise ethical knowledge forms to make them better guides for moral/ethical comportment. Examples Of Carper's Ways Of Knowing 857 Words | 4 Pages. It turns out that both you and the physician feel that your respective actions are morally right. Morality is determined largely by situational and background experiences. You feel that the patient has the right to know and thus use the precepts that surround a patient’s right to information to justify your action. Finally, changing the details that are entered in the elements of a decision tree and noticing how it affects both the processes and the outcomes of decision making is a useful clarification technique. In addition, you begin to recognize the merits and pitfalls of different approaches to moral and ethical decision making. According to Carper, “The ethical component of nursing is focused on matters of obligation or what ought to be done. Many topics about ethical issues are timely or timeless. Ethical matters can be complicated; what to do is often not clear, and the information needed to make a sound decision may not be available. First, it is important to select or create a moral/ethical dilemma that you and those working with you will emotionally relate to and that you will not see as fictitious to your practice. During this process, you are drawn to consider and explore various actions and options that flow from each value, which leads to the further clarification of the values themselves. The process of due diligence is something which the buyer conducts to confirm the accuracy of the seller's claims. Second, it is important to focus on clarifying individual values that emerge from the process, regardless of the process used for clarification. In more recent nursing literature, there has been increasing interest in the concept of caring as a centrally important focus for the development of both empiric and ethical theory. In this text, our focus is on prescriptive ethics, but it is important to recognize the value of descriptive ethics for examining the nature of ethical knowledge in nursing. We believe that nurses must be concerned with issues of both care and justice if nursing’s purposes are to be realized. When considering a career in corporate finance or the capital markets you will often hear people asking, “Should I get a CPA or CFA?” and “Which is better?”. Our system for knowledge development includes aspects of both teleologic and deontologic perspectives. As you consider these questions in the moment of practice, you act in relation to knowledge that you have about what is ethical with consideration for other patterns of knowing. According to moral relativism, there are no universal ethical values. For example, if you have a strong moral disposition toward counseling an underage woman about her options for birth control but such information is prohibited by state statute, an appeal to ethical knowledge (e.g., a code of rights) will not get you off the hook in a court of law. The Nightingale Pledge (which, we would like to add, was not created by Nightingale) and the Hippocratic Oath also are forms of ethical knowledge. Some focus on the cultivation of virtuous behavior seems important to ethical knowledge and knowing. In addition, companies may provide ethical training for their employees. The 2-year-old girl, who is currently being hospitalized for an emergency appendectomy, has bruises and marks that you believe are the result of being struck. With the use of teleology, one could justify stripping a wealthy person of personal assets for redistribution to those who are poor and thereby producing a greater good for a greater number of people. In this instance, the nurse and the physician should recognize the nature of power imbalances and how they are sustained and seek avenues related to emancipatory knowing that fundamentally will undermine or circumvent paternalistic patterns of control. During the process of exploring alternatives, you strive to gain clarity on an issue, to examine various points of view both factually and logically, and to examine different approaches to resolving a dilemma. Each person’s personal beliefs and values regarding death, life, and life after death influence how he or she approaches the situation. Moreover, you know that there are risks to the fetus associated with prenatal diagnosis, should they choose it. Ethical Responsibility. When problematic value positions are challenged by a person taking notice of alternative positions that are possible within certain situations, personal values can change. Although internal logic is important for coherence, it is an insufficient standard for establishing the value of ethical knowledge in nursing. Rather, the more likely scenario is that multiple justification perspectives will be used. Kohlberg’s theory supported a morality in which actors could remain detached from the situation and appeal to rules or calculations of good as a guide to action. What values support nursing’s ethics and morality? Introduction Carper’s ways of knowing provide a fundamental source of information regarding nursing knowledge and practice. One of the ethical principles is acceptance of everything that is different. It is important to question who defines what is virtuous and who benefits from the particular way in which the word virtuous is defined. Regardless of the form of ethical knowledge, we suggest that, eventually, it can be reduced to principles and codes, which are shorthand ways of expressing ethical knowing. Should I share my views about what is responsible childbearing with a young couple who discovers that they both have diabetes? The situation involves a mother who is suspected of inflicting physical harm on her young child. Virtue ethics also offers a structure for moral/ethical comportment that can balance relativism by suggesting that a virtuous person will behave in a moral/ethical way. For example, when people are involved in caring for someone at the end of that person’s life, every individual involved will have personal beliefs and preferences about how best to care for the person who is dying. Organizational structures should develop strict ethical standards for their employees. When moral behavior is blocked by situational factors in a way that matters to persons, moral distress results. Values clarification is important because it emphasizes affective thinking and behavior-motivated choice and allows you to question how responsible your moral/ethical decisions are. With the use of cognitive reasoning processes that incorporate emotional and other nonrational sources of behavior, prescriptions for ethical behavior are put into language and set forth as theories, codes, duties, principles, and so forth. By Jeffrey L. Seglin, Real Simple. Here is an example of ethical directives (ethical knowledge) being used to judge behavior as ethical or not. Kohlberg’s work staged moral development with the use of only male research subjects, and Gilligan challenged its validity as a normative template for judging moral development in women. In the Patients’ Bill of Rights, another ethical directive states that patients must take more responsibility for maintaining good health. Taking such a risk to make a political statement and to press a community to consider ethical and moral alternatives requires courage and strong moral conviction. For example, ethically you may believe that it is important to obey Provision 1 of the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, which states that you should practice with compassion and respect for the dignity and worth of every individual (“Code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements,” 2005). As discussions and disagreements occur, underlying values are made more visible to individual participants within the group. The distinction between ethics and morality reflects the tension between epistemology and ontology and the difficulty of separating what we know from who we are. Such questions relate to the final value from which no others can be derived and which centers our knowledge development efforts and professional activities. Homosexuality, for example, is a capital offense in one country, whereas it is a human right in another. We assume that nurses bring to their work some base set of values that guide their ethical decisions and moral behavior. Mention to students that they have already encountered Exorcising cultural relativism in Indigenous Knowledge Systems, and, of course, The Seven Deadly Sins was thinly disguised virtue ethics. To keep learning and advancing your career, the following CFI resources will be helpful: Become a certified Financial Modeling and Valuation Analyst (FMVA)®FMVA® CertificationJoin 350,600+ students who work for companies like Amazon, J.P. Morgan, and Ferrari by completing CFI’s online financial modeling classes and training program! The questioning of values with the use of formal techniques of clarification assumes that values may not always be “good.” It also assumes that there exists a disjunction between the values that we believe are important for influencing our actions and those that actually do influence what we do and say. Sometimes when the moral positions of physician and nurse collide, both positions are reasonable, and both parties to the moral positions hold strong beliefs about their correctness. The contributors receive no mention or reward for sharing their knowledge. Norms CFI offers the Financial Modeling & Valuation Analyst (FMVA)™FMVA® CertificationJoin 350,600+ students who work for companies like Amazon, J.P. Morgan, and Ferrari certification program for those looking to take their careers to the next level. A whistleblower policy is now considered a very critical part of almost all organizations, as a result of legal issues. Who would gain? As an example of how care and justice might emerge with the use of the processes of dialogue and justification, suppose that you and your peers are examining a situation beginning with a deontologic perspective that provides a rule for ethical action. Descriptive ethics is an empiric endeavor that systematizes what people believe ethically and how they behave in relation to those beliefs. The right-to-privacy directive in the Patients’ Bill of Rights states, in part, that patients have the right to confidentiality. These questions engage the clarifying and exploring processes that we have described with the use of dialogue and justification. Although appeals to ethical knowledge can be used to challenge and justify morality, they do not supersede the law. The personal knowing exemplar gave me an understanding of appreciating others especially children that cannot defend themselves. Moral/ethical comportment requires the consideration of all other knowing patterns in the moment of practice. Most ethical codes and principles as well as systems of ethical reasoning and decision making can be broadly classified into one of these two types. It might look like a crowded work floor with only one means of exit. You and others initially suggest that doing no harm in this case means establishing the source of the child’s bruises and subsequently protecting the child from further injury. . For example, suppose you conducted a survey of your student peers and asked the following: (1) “Is it wrong to use purchased term papers about nurse theorists and their work to fulfill course requirements?” and (2) “Have you ever done this?” Collating and reporting their answers would be in the realm of descriptive ethics. Ethics is receiving renewed emphasis today, and nursing organizations are deliberately focusing on the need to attend to ethical issues. Consider the following example: Jill and Armando are expecting their first child, and they may be carriers of the gene for cystic fibrosis; however, they seem to be unaware that an opportunity for genetic testing exists. For relativists, ethical systems and morality depend on historical timing, the culture and language within which the justification system is embedded, and the particular group and individual subjects involved in decision making (Bandman & Bandman, 2001; Mappes & DeGrazia, 2006). As these questions are answered, knowledge that can be shared and used in practice, such as ethical principles and codes, is developed. As a manager, you should always expect employees who are honest. Prescriptive or normative ethics is concerned with the “oughts” of behavior. Almost every aspect of business can become a possible ground for ethical dilemmas. The four perspectives that appear commonly in nursing literature are briefly examined here: (1) teleology, (2) deontology, (3) relativism, and (4) virtue ethics. However, there are a host of alternative actions that can be taken, even when all of the facts remain constant. It turns out that the mother cannot afford paid child care because she needs her income to meet expenses, including renting an apartment that keeps her whereabouts hidden from a former partner who has abused both her and the child in the past. Adults who are dominated by the opinions of the herd may be morally retarded. We have chosen an eclectic approach to forming and justifying ethical principles because we believe no single perspective is entirely useful for all situations. Ethics, then, is more like head work, the products of which are things such as ethical principles, theories, rules, codes, and laws; lists of obligations or duties; and descriptions of moral and ethical behavior. We prefer to avoid associating ethical knowledge forms with theory to prevent confusion of the differences between ethical and empiric theories. In addition, you can provide no assurances about the quality of life of the child should he or she develop the disease, because the condition could be severe or more mild. Feminists (Hoagland, 1990; Houston, 1990; Liaschenko, 1993; Noddings, 2003; Tong, 2008) have cautioned nurses about the alignment of moral decision making in women with care perspectives because of its potential to further entrench oppressive values. During the process of exploring alternatives, you examine how different courses of action that you might take flow from or challenge your values. Relativist claims also preclude the advancement of ethical knowledge because no standpoint for judging behavior is taken to be better than any other. 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